Dudley was drafted in the 1942 NFL Draft with the first overall pick by the Pittsburgh Steelers. During the 1942 season, he led the league in rushing with 696 yards on 162 carries and was then named to the All-Pro team. He also completed 35 of 94 passes for 438 yards and two touchdowns, punted 18 times for a 32.0 average, returned 20 punts for 271 yards (14.0 avg), and ran back 11 kickoffs for 298 yards (27.0 avg), scoring once.
His career was interrupted by military service in the Army during World War II from 1943 to 1945. When he returned he spent two more seasons in Pittsburgh, being named the NFL’s Most Valuable Player in 1946.
In addition to being a member of the Steelers Legends, Dudley was selected to the NFL’s 1940’s All-Decade team. He is also a member of the Pro Football Hall of Fame.